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Stalks of sugar cane, plants, wild species growing in India, was the initial raw material for the extraction of sugar; in Europe cane sugar became known BC as a medicine. When the dominion of the Arabs in the IX century the cultivation of sugar cane was established in Egypt, Sicily and southern Spain; at the end of the tenth century sugar production in the form of a conical heads already made in Venice, but more common sugar received in Europe only during the Crusades. In 1490 Columbus carried sugar cane from the Canary Islands to Santo Domingo (Haiti), and since that time culture in the West Indies and Central America began to develop rapidly and colonial sugar sand started to cover the total demand for it in Europe, in which, since the sixteenth century, appeared to cleanse his refineries. Nonetheless, the sugar for a long time, until the nineteenth century, remained a luxury item. Most of the sugar consumed in the modern world, is produced from sugar cane.
Sugar cane is a perennial grass cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. For its cultivation requires a frost-free climate with sufficient rainfall during the growing season, in order to fully exploit the enormous growth potential of plants. Harvested manually or mechanically, the stems are cut into pieces and quickly transported to a processing plant.
Approximately 80% of sugar on the world market is produced from sugar cane, and, respectively, 20% from sugar beet.
According to the latest data, the world production of raw sugar is bolee 170 million tons