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Sugar — household name sucrose (C12H22O11). Cane and beet sugar is an important food product. Common sugar (sucrose) refers to carbohydrates that are considered valuable nutrients, providing the body with the necessary energy. Starch also belongs to the carbohydrates, but learning his body is relatively slow. Sucrose is rapidly broken down in the digestive tract to glucose and fructose, which then enter the bloodstream.
Glucose provides more than half of energy costs. The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is maintained at 80-120 milligrams of sugar in 100 milliliters (0,08~0,12 %). Glucose has the ability to maintain the barrier function of the liver against toxic substances through participation in the formation in the liver of the so-called paired sulfuric and glucuronic acids. That is why the intake of sugar inside or glucose into a vein it is recommended in certain liver diseases, poisoning.
The birthplace of sugar — India. In Europe, sugar was known to the Romans. Brown sugar particles were prepared from the juice of sugar cane and imported to Europe from India. Egypt, a province of the Roman Empire, was the intermediary in the trade with India. Later sugar cane appeared in Sicily and in southern Spain, but with the fall of the Roman Empire, this tradition was lost.
The history of sugar in Russia begins around the XI—XII centuries. When sugar was first brought, trying it could only the Prince and his court. Russia's first "sugar house" was opened by Peter I in the early eighteenth century, and raw materials for sugar imported from abroad. In 1809 began to improve sugar production from domestic raw materials — sugar beet.